Steps to Preserve Your Claim in a Premises Liability Case

Steps to Preserve Your Claim in a Premises Liability Case

Anderson O’Brien handles many claims involving individuals who injure themselves after falling or tripping due to ice or some other unsafe condition or obstacle. These types of cases are called premises liability cases. They occur frequently, especially during Wisconsin’s difficult winters involving ice and snow. March is a particularly hazardous month with all of the freezing and thawing that takes place, resulting in the accumulation of ice. Many of these incidents result in very serious injuries requiring surgery, necessitating the insertion of plates and screws into someone’s ankle, leg or hip. These cases can be difficult to prove, as it is necessary to establish that the property owner was negligent and/or, in some cases, that they violated Wisconsin’s Safe Place Statute.

However, while serious injuries may result from a slip and fall, it can be difficult to preserve the very evidence you need to prove your case. Several steps must be taken to effectively preserve your evidence and to pursue your claims. The following consists of some of the steps that are important for you to take if you intend to pursue a premises liability claim.

1. Provide Notice of the Incident Immediately.
Proper documentation in premises liability cases is crucial. Providing notice immediately to the owner or manager of the property is something that absolutely must be done in order to pursue your claim. The purpose of immediate notice is that it puts the owner or manager of the property on notice so that it provides credibility to your claim that the trip and fall actually occurred at the time and location you said it did. The restaurant, store, gas station, or manager of the facility where you fell also should generate a written incident report which can later be used to prove your claim. Additionally, providing immediate notice to the owner or manager on site will cause that person to investigate and to observe for themselves if there are, in fact, icy conditions or other dangerous conditions which exist, and they can be a witness that you can use to establish your claim. It also provides the manager with notice that they should take measures to render the premises safer, such as placing salt on the ice upon which you fell, and that can also be used as evidence against the property owner.

2. Take as Many Photographs as You Can.
Documenting the scene of the incident through photographs is invaluable and can literally make or break your case. The condition of what you tripped or fell on can change almost instantly. (For example, water or liquids can be cleaned up by the property owner; ice and snow conditions on a sidewalk or inside a building can melt. Other unsafe conditions can be fixed and repaired within a short period after the incident.) Therefore, if you do not take photographs to establish the condition at the time you fell, it may be very difficult to give an accurate verbal description to the insurance company or to a jury of what it is you fell on, what time you fell, and where you fell. Certainly, you may not be able to think about taking photographs at the time that you sustained a serious injury. However, you need to do whatever you can to take pictures. If you need to, ask someone else to take pictures with your phone immediately or have a friend or relative go back to the location as soon as they can after you fall. Photographs are the single most critical piece of evidence in many slip and fall claims.

3. If Possible, Obtain Information About Other Witnesses.
In many slip and fall cases, if you do not have direct video surveillance saved by the business where the incident took place, the claim may essentially boil down to “he said, she said” evidence. The insurance company may argue that you did not even fall on the date or time that you said you did. If you obtain the contact information of all witnesses who observed the incident or saw you lying on the ground after you were injured, this will give greater credibility to your claim. You will also then have contact information for these witnesses who can testify as to the conditions where you fell at that exact moment.

4. Seek Medical Treatment if Necessary.
If you are injured in a slip and fall incident and you need medical care, you should do so immediately and go to the emergency room rather than waiting for an appointment with your doctor several days later. The significance of this is twofold. First, the doctors can examine you and take x-rays to get you the proper care you need immediately to get you on the road to recovery. You should follow all of your doctor’s advice and show up to all of your appointments. Secondly, the fact that you slipped and fell will be reported in your medical records and if you go to the emergency room, this will help establish the date, time, and location of when this incident actually occurred. Be specific with your doctors about the details surrounding this injury. When you pursue a claim against the insurance company and have to testify, sometimes several years later after the fall, the documentation in your medical records will prove invaluable in establishing your claims.

5. Contact an Attorney.
It is important to contact an attorney right away if you intend to pursue a potential premises liability claim. There are important time limits and notice provisions under the law that must be satisfied in order to pursue a claim against property owners or insurance companies. The legal requirements of notice will differ based upon where you fell (i.e., for a government entity, you must give notice of the injury within 120 days). Evidence must be preserved, investigations and contact with witnesses must be made. Anderson O’Brien has the experience and expertise to handle these types of cases. We take the burden off of you to develop your case from the very beginning. We offer free initial consultations to evaluate potential premises liability claims.

Following the above steps in a premises liability claim, or any personal injury claim, will greatly assist your attorney in representing you to obtain the best results possible.

 

Protect Your Rights After a Hit-and-Run

Protect Your Rights After a Hit-and-Run

When people envision an auto wreck, their minds usually go to an image of two crashed vehicles on the side of the road, and the police are present talking to the parties and witnesses to document what occurred. As a result, an accident victim can readily identify the at-fault party and insurance company to pursue compensation for his or her injuries and losses. However, in a hit-and-run, if the other driver is never identified, the accident victim obviously cannot identify a driver or insurance company to pursue. Therefore, in order to obtain compensation for injuries sustained in a hit-and-run, the accident victim must use his or her Uninsured Motorist coverage. This can make recovering compensation more complicated, as there are procedural pitfalls awaiting an accident victim.

While using Uninsured Motorist coverage (also referred to as “UM”) may seem counterintuitive, under Wisconsin law, one of the definitions of an “uninsured motor vehicle” is “an unidentified motor vehicle involved in a hit-and-run accident with another person.” Since Wisconsin law requires every automobile insurance policy sold in the state to contain UM coverage, every Wisconsin automobile insurance policy has protection for a hit-and-run (the amount of protection depends on the limits of UM purchased).

The “more complicated” part referenced above comes from policy language that imposes additional duties on the accident victim in order to utilize the UM coverage for a hit-and-run. While every insurance company and policy is different (and they are always changing), many policies require the person making a claim for a hit-and-run to notify the police and the insurance company in a timely matter. Some insurers only require the person “promptly notify,” while others have even more stringent requirements of 30 days or even 72 hours. As always, you want to read and follow your policy’s duties and deadlines to avoid the argument that you breached the policy and are not entitled to UM coverage. Therefore, in addition to the ever-present three-year statute of limitations that the claim must be brought within, the policy imposes its own obligations.

As if not already complicated enough, if you are injured in an accident in which the unidentified vehicle did not physically make contact with your vehicle (a/k/a “phantom motor vehicle”), a set of even more stringent requirements await you. For example: a driver comes over the centerline forcing you to swerve, your vehicle overturns and you are injured. In this type of scenario, Wisconsin law requires that: (1) the facts be corroborated by “competent evidence” provided by someone other than the insured or the person making the claim; (2) within 72 hours of the accident, a report of the accident is made to the police, peace or judicial officer, or the DOT (or equivalent in another state); and (3) within 30 days after the accident, a statement under oath is filed with the insurer setting forth the claim and facts in support of the statement.

Depending on your viewpoint, these obligations permit the insurance company the opportunity to investigate difficult claims timely, serve as a way for insurance companies to deny meritorious claims, or a little bit of both. Regardless, they are but one example of why it is so important to seek representation immediately after an accident. Even without these potential procedural pitfalls, an accident victim is likely to face a fight with the insurance company over liability for the accident and what compensation is owed. You do not want to be barred from even making a claim because of failure to comply with any policy and statutory requirements.

 

Liability Concerns for Dog Owners

Liability Concerns for Dog Owners

Dog owners love their dogs. Statistics show that there are approximately 89 million dogs in the United States which are kept by 60 million households. However, while our dogs give us great companionship, they can also create a liability concern, costing the owners substantial amounts of money if the dogs cause property damage or personal injuries. The statistics show that there are approximately 4.5 million dog bites per year in the United States and approximately 750,000 dog bite victims who require medical care each year. In 2015, more than 28,000 reconstructive surgery procedures were performed because of dog bites.

Under Wisconsin Statutes, Wis. Stat. § 174.02, an owner of a dog is strictly liable for the full amount of damages caused by property damage or bodily injuries caused by a dog to another person, animal, or property. (The strict liability is subject to the defense of contributory negligence. For example, if someone provoked the dog which resulted in a dog bite, that may reduce the dog owner’s responsibility for damages to that person.)

If the owner of the dog is aware of a previous time when the dog, without provocation, caused serious injury to someone, then the owner of the dog will be liable for twice the full amount of damages caused by the dog biting someone again with sufficient force to break the skin and cause permanent injuries. The amount of damages may include pain and suffering, past and future medical bills, wage loss, and permanent disfigurement. In addition to monetary damages, a court may order that the dog be euthanized under both of the following conditions:
1. The dog caused serious injury to a person or domestic animal on two separate occasions off of the owner’s property, without reasonable cause; and
2. The owner of the dog was notified or knew prior to the second injury that the dog caused the first injury.
The financial impact of dog bites is substantial. Dog attack victims in the United States suffer over $1 billion in losses every year. Dog bites and other dog-related injuries cost homeowners liability insurance companies more than $686 million in 2017.

Given that a dog owner is strictly liable for damages, what can a homeowner do to protect themselves? First of all, using good old common sense may go a long way to preventing these occurrences. Keeping one’s dog on a leash and preventing it from roaming onto other people’s property may help prevent unwanted injuries. Additionally, not allowing strangers or small children to approach one’s dog will also prevent situations where the dog may feel threatened. Also, keeping the dog in the house when mail carriers or delivery people are approaching the home would be a prudent course of action. The statistics show that 5,900 U.S. postal service letter carriers were bitten by dogs in 2012.

No matter what precautions one takes, it cannot always prevent dog bites from occurring. To protect against this personal financial risk that you have for being a dog owner, the first place one should look to is one’s homeowner’s or renter’s insurance policy. It would be wise to evaluate your insurance coverage at the present time if you own a dog. Depending on which insurance company you have, there are a wide variety of approaches taken by the insurance companies as to whether they cover dog bites or whether they exclude damages resulting from dog bites. Some companies will cover the damages, provided that you pay the premium for an endorsement providing this type of coverage. Some companies will only pay a small amount for damages and some may pay less depending upon the type of breed of dog that you have. Some companies will exclude coverage completely. Interestingly enough, some companies will provide coverage for the first bite, but then have language in their policy excluding coverage for any subsequent dog bites after the owner has knowledge of a first bite.

Therefore, it is recommended that if you want to be certain as to whether and to what extent you have insurance coverages for damages resulting from a dog bite, that you get in touch with your insurance agent. Another way for one to minimize the financial risk associated with dog bites would be to purchase an umbrella insurance policy which provides additional protection for liability. Our law firm has discussed the importance of an umbrella policy at many of our seminars and in other articles and website videos. An umbrella policy, which is relatively inexpensive, does not simply apply to automobile liability, underinsured motorist coverage, or uninsured motorist coverage. A personal umbrella policy can also provide for additional liability coverage under your homeowner’s policy for occasions such as this if you are found liable for damages resulting from a dog bite. Again, you are encouraged to check with your insurance agent to see what coverages are offered and what limitations or exclusions can be found in your policy relating to dog bites.

It is also important to note that if you do, in fact, have coverage for dog bites under your homeowner’s policy, then the insurance company is obligated to provide a defense to you in the event you are sued in a lawsuit resulting from the dog bite. The insurance company would then have a duty to defend you and pay for attorneys’ fees to defend you. That is a very valuable benefit of having the insurance coverage – not only may it provide coverage so that you do not have to dip into your personal resources to pay for any damages, but the cost of a defense in a lawsuit can be very substantial and it is an excellent benefit to have in the event this unfortunate situation arises. If you have questions about liability for dog bites or are a victim of a dog bite, you should contact an attorney right away. There are time limitations in which you can bring claims for injuries if you do sustain a serious dog bite and, therefore, it is important to preserve evidence and discuss the legal ramifications early in the process.

 

Are you Adequately Covered to Head out on the Road?

Are you Adequately Covered to Head out on the Road?

We hope that you never end up in an automobile accident. However, automobile accidents happen every day, and should you become involved in one, you want to make sure that you have adequate insurance coverage.

The type of automobile insurance coverage that most drivers are familiar with is liability coverage. In Wisconsin, you are required to carry automobile liability insurance of at least $25,000. Liability coverage means the amount available to cover your liability to another party should you be responsible for his or her injuries arising from the accident. While $25,000 is the minimum coverage you must legally carry, that amount is likely insufficient to protect you in the event the other driver and passengers sustain injuries. Larger liability coverage amounts are available through most insurers, including amounts up to $250,000 or even $500,000.

Beyond basic liability coverage, you should also consider acquiring umbrella coverage, which is relatively inexpensive coverage that applies in the event a claim exceeds your basic liability limits. Umbrella coverage is usually for $1 million or more and usually requires underlying limits of a minimum amount, such as $250,000.

If another driver is responsible (or at-fault) for injuring you in a vehicle accident, that driver might not have auto insurance (even though the law requires it) or might have insufficient insurance coverage. This is where two other relatively inexpensive coverages may help—underinsured motorist (UIM) and uninsured motorist (UM) coverage. For example, if you sustain damages of $250,000 and the other driver has only $100,000 of liability coverage, if you have $250,000 of UIM coverage, your UIM coverage will pay the remaining $150,000. Thus, by having UIM and UM coverage, you will be protected in the event the other driver has insufficient coverage or no coverage.

Hopefully, you also carry good medical insurance. If you are injured in an auto accident, medical expenses can be substantial. What most people do not know is that their automobile policy includes medical coverage for injuries arising from an automobile accident. However in most cases, that coverage is minimal, such as $10,000. You may, and we recommend you consider, acquiring much higher coverage. Medical payments coverage in an automobile policy is usually relatively inexpensive.

Protect yourself and buy sufficient liability, medical, umbrella, underinsured, and uninsured insurance coverage. In the unfortunate event you are injured in an automobile accident, you will know that you have sufficient coverage available to compensate you for your injuries and damages.

Finally, while you might have sufficient coverage, wrestling with an insurance company to pay your claim is not a simple task. Attorneys who handle car accident cases all the time know what works and can help you get the top dollar from your insurance company. In the event you are in an auto accident, don’t wait and contact your personal injury attorney right away.

 

Life Events Require a Fresh Look at Insurance Coverages

Life Events Require a Fresh Look at Insurance Coverages

I recently had the incredibly good fortune of getting married to my wonderful wife, Kat.  In addition to the name, address, and health insurance changes that came with this life event, I volunteered to get our auto and homeowners insurance policies and coverages melded and up to date.  Since I focus my practice on representing injury victims, as we were updating our policies, I kept an eye out for a number of insurance policy issues that I recently came across in my practice.

Arbitration for Underinsured (UIM) and Uninsured (UM) Motorist Coverage

One of the greatest, if not the greatest, protection that an injury victim has is his or her Seventh Amendment right to a jury trial.  If the negligent party’s insurer is unwilling to provide fair and reasonable compensation for the injuries and damage sustained, you can seek recourse from a jury of your peers.  This is also true if the negligent driver does not have sufficient, or any, insurance and you need to make an underinsured or uninsured motorist claim with your own insurance company.

However, the Seventh Amendment protection is disappearing in some automobile insurance policies that include provisions that require arbitration for uninsured and underinsured motorist claims.  As a result, if the injured person and his or her insurance company cannot agree as to whether UIM/UM coverage applies or the amount of damages, rather than a jury of your peers deciding the issues, a group of arbitrators (usually three) decides the issues.

It is easy to pass this issue off as an “only lawyers read the insurance policy” type of issue.  However, depending on the issues and type of injuries, having your claim limited to a three-person arbitration body with limited discovery, limited evidence and limited appellate review could have a huge influence on your injury claim.  Unfortunately, by the time a lawyer reads your insurance policy, it is often after the injuries have occurred, and it is too late for the injured party to make an informed choice.

Breed Restrictions and Limits for Dog Bites

In Wisconsin, there is statutory liability for an owner, harborer and keeper of a dog when a dog bite occurs.  Normally, insurance coverage for this type of incident falls under a homeowner’s or renter’s insurance policy.  Just as all UIM/UM policy provisions are not written the same, not all policy provisions involving dog bite liability are the same.  There are a number of insurance policies in Wisconsin that limit, or completely exclude, coverage for certain dog breeds.

Some insurance policies exclude coverage for bodily injury or property damage caused by what the policy defines as prohibited or excluded breeds of dogs, including mixed breeds.  If not excluded, some policies limit the amount of insurance to an amount that is much lower (e.g. $25,000 or $10,000) than the policy’s normal liability limit.  As such, if you or your family owns a dog, make sure to check your policy for any dog breed restrictions or limitations of coverage.  Fortunately, my new married life includes only a teacup Chihuahua, which I have yet to see listed as an excluded breed.

 

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